IEA SHC Articles

Advanced Lighting Solutions for Retrofitting Buildings
Interview with Jan de Boer
December 2016 - PDF 0.14MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
Publisher: IEA SHC
The IEA SHC Programme wrapped up its work on Advanced Lighting Solutions for Retrofitting Buildings (Task 50) this year, and is developing a new Task on the topic of Integrated Solutions for Daylight and Electric Lighting: From Component to User Centered System Efficiency. To learn first hand about the impact Task 50 has had in this field, we asked Jan de Boer, the Task Operating Agent, a few questions.
Canadian Solar Community Hits 100% Solar Heating
December 2016 - PDF 0.3MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
The Drake Landing Solar Community in Okotoks, Alberta hit a new solar performance milestone record – 100% solar space heating for the 2015-2016 heating season. This is the first community in the world to accomplish this feat. The community of 52 energy efficient homes is heated by a solar district heating system combined with a borehole seasonal heat storage designed to store abundant solar energy underground during the sunny summer months and recover this heat for space heating during the cold winter months.
European SDH Projects – The Next BIG Solar Step
December 2016 - PDF 0.14MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
A team of experts from the city of Graz, Austria, has decided to take a lead in the analysis and evaluation of a major proposed local Solar District Heating (SDH) project to determine if it is technically feasible, is feasible within realistic costs, and if it will even be a profitable business opportunity.
Improving Lighting Retrofits
December 2016 - PDF 0.66MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
The recent IEA SHC Task on lighting set out to accelerate retrofitting of daylighting and electric lighting solutions in the non-domestic sector using cost effective, best practice approaches that could be used on a wide range of typical existing buildings.
Industry and Research Join Forces on Reliability Testing of Collectors and Materials
December 2016 - PDF 0.13MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
Solar thermal collectors and their components are commonly exposed to a wide range of climatic influences. Next to UV radiation, factors like humidity, wind, extremely high or low temperatures, salt, sand and other particles in the atmosphere affect the surfaces and performance of these products. Although these influences are decisive factors for the lifetime and long-term efficiency of solar thermal collectors, there are no validated or binding test procedures for reliability assessment over time or models that allow a location-specific service life prediction.
Slovakia Joins IEA SHC!
December 2016 - PDF 0.06MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme welcomes Slovakia as the first country from Eastern Europe to join the Programme. Participation by the Slovak Innovation and Energy Agency (SIEA) in the IEA SHC builds on collaboration by Slovakia in the Programme’s lighting retrofit work.
Solar Thermal in Qatar Today and Tomorrow
December 2016 - PDF 0.24MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
In recent years, the population of Qatar has grown at an increased rate than was previously seen and so has carbon emissions. As the population has grown at a faster rate than previously seen and demand for resources that will result in further increases in the rate of carbon emissions. Considering the wider impacts of carbon emissions on our climate, it is vital to reduce these emissions using effective renewable solutions.
2016 Solar Thermal Trends
May 2016 - PDF 0.18MB
By: Pam Murphy
With 2016 underway, it’s important to stop for a moment and think about where solar thermal is headed in the short-term and how current work can support or be adjusted to keep pace with technological advances. Several SHC Task Operating Agents have weighed in on trends in their areas of expertise.
May 2016 - PDF 0.52MB
By: Pam Murphy
The IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme welcomes the International Solar Energy Society (ISES) as its newest Sponsor member. This development offers expanded opportunities for ISES members to participate in technical activities under the IEA SHC, and places ISES at the IEA SHC table as a member of its Executive Committee.
Solar Rating & Certification
Interview with Jan Erik Nielsen
May 2016 - PDF 0.12MB
By: Pam Murphy
The IEA SHC Programme wrapped up its work on Solar Rating & Certification (Task 43) in 2015, and in 2016 started a new Task on Solar Standards and Certification (Task 57). To get a better understanding of the impact of Task 43, we asked Jan Erik Nielsen, the Operating Agent, a few questions.
Task 42: Compact Thermal Energy Storage
Collaboration Leads to Groundbreaking Work
May 2016 - PDF 0.68MB
By: Matthias Rommel
For the first time international teams of materials experts and application experts collaborated to tackle together issues confronting thermal energy storage. This one of a kind research platform was created jointly by the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (IEA SHC) and the IEA Energy Conservation through Energy Storage Programme (IEA ECES).
Task 49: Solar Heat in Industrial Processes
Interview with Christoph Brunner
May 2016 - PDF 0.14MB
By: Pam Murphy
Solar Update (SU): Why was this project needed?
Christoph Brunner (CB): SHC Task 49/SolarPACES Annes IV: Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes was initiated to foster market penetration of this rather young technology that has large worldwide potential.
Task 53: The Future of Solar Cooling
May 2016 - PDF 0.35MB
By: Daniel Mugnier
The increasing demand for refrigeration and air conditioning has led to a dramatic increase in peak electricity demand in many countries. With the increase in demand comes the increase in the cost of electricity and summer brownouts, which have been attributed to the large number of conventional air conditioning systems running on electricity. As the number of traditional vapor compression cooling machines grows (more than 100 million units sold in 2014) so do greenhouse gas emissions, both from direct leakage of high GWP refrigerant, such as HFCs, and from indirect emissions related to fossil fuel derived electricity consumption. An obvious counter to this trend is to use the same energy for generation of cooling that contributes to creating the cooling demand—solar energy.
Novel solar thermal collector systems in polymer design – Part 3: aging behavior of PP absorber materials
2016 - PDF 0.43MB
By: Markus Povacz, Gernot M. Wallner, Michael K. Grabmann*, Susanne Beißmann, Klemens Grabmayer, Wolfgang Buchberger, Reinhold W. Lang
Publisher: Energy Procedia, Elsevier
A novel, accelerated aging test method was used to characterize the long-term stability of commercial black-pigmented polypropylene (PP) model materials for solar thermal absorbers at elevated temperatures. The PP model materials investigated, PP-B1 and PP-B2, are based on carbon black pigmented PP block copolymer grades. Using an automatized planning technique, sliced 100 µm thick specimens were prepared, aged in hot air and heat carrier fluid (mixture of 60 vol.-% deionized water and 40 vol.-% commercial propylene glycol) at 95°C, 115°C and 135°C for up to 15,000 hours, and characterized in terms of various aging indicators (i.e., remaining primary stabilizer content, oxidation temperature, carbonyl index and ultimate mechanical properties). In general two major trends were discerned. First, the aging processes of the PP compounds depend on the stabilizer system, but even more heavily on the interaction of the stabilizers with the carbon black pigments and the structure and morphology of the polymer. Although the compound PP-B2 exhibited much faster stabilizer loss and an associated drop in oxidation temperature than PP-B1, mechanical investigations proved a better long-term stability for PP-B2. Second, it was shown for the compounds investigated that exposure to hot air causes harsher aging than exposure to hot heat carrier fluid. This is, presumably related to the reduced quantity of dissolved oxygen and triazole-based corrosion inhibitors used in the heat carrier fluid. While PP-B1 is use for absorbers in unglazed collectors and overheating-protected glazed collectors, the investigations clearly revealed that PP-B2 is a promising alternative.
Novel solar thermal collector systems in polymer design – Part 5: Fatigue characterization of engineering PA grades for pressurized integrated storage collectors
2016 - PDF 0.94MB
By: Joerg Fischer*, Patrick R. Bradler, Mathias Schlaeger, Gernot M. Wallner, Reinhold W. Lang
Publisher: Energy Procedia, Elsevier
A novel aging test method considering the superimposed mechanical and environmental (temperature and environmental medium) loads representative for pressurized integrated storage collectors (ICS) is described. Engineering polyamide (PA) grades with short glass fiber (GF) reinforcement, which are of high relevance for endcaps of steel-pipe ICS absorbers or all-polymeric absorber/storage-tanks, are characterized on a specimen level. Therefore, specific test devices and test arrangements for fracture mechanics specimens with or without weld-line are implemented on an electro-dynamic test machine. Fatigue crack growth kinetics data are obtained by conducting cyclic mechanical loads under various environmental testing conditions. The experimental results of two glass-fiber reinforced PA grades, using compact type specimens, performed at two different temperatures (23 °C and 80 °C) and in two environmental media (air and water), are compared in terms of crack growth kinetics. Moreover, the influence of welding on the crack growth kinetics for one PA grade is shown. For all specimens (unwelded and welded) the fatigue crack growth rates are enhanced in water compared to air. In welded specimens the fatigue crack growth resistance is significantly reduced compared to unwelded specimens.
Polymeric materials in solar-thermal systems - performance requirements and loads
2016 - PDF 1.91MB
By: Thomas Ramschak, Robert Hausner, Christian Fink
Publisher: Energy Procedia, Elsevier
A major basic problem in selecting appropriate polymeric materials and processing technology routes is related to the lack of well-defined functional and performance requirements on the component level and to material property requirements on the specimen level. Hence, in a first step several reference climate regions were defined for pumped systems (continental (Graz/Austria), moderate climate (Beijing/China)) and non-pumped systems (Mediterranean (Athens/Greece), hot and dry (Pretoria/South Africa), hot and humid (Fortaleza/Brazil)), respectively. For each of these reference regions various solar-thermal plant types (e.g., domestic hotwater systems for single family houses (pumped and thermosiphon); domestic hot-water systems for multi-family houses; solar combi-systems for domestic hot-water and space heating (pumped) were pre-defined and evaluated and optimized virtually by modelling and simulation. To determine performance requirements on the component level and to derive material property requirements on the specimen level all-purpose modelling and design tools for collectors were implemented and used which allow for the description of temperature profiles, stagnation conditions, efficiency curves, pressure losses, distribution of fluid and heat flow and the thermal and hydraulic optimisation of the whole collector.
Lifetime modeling of polypropylene absorber materials for overheating protected hot water collectors
January 2016
By: G.M. Wallner, M. Povacz, R. Hausner, R.W. Lang
Publisher: Solar Energy, Elsevier
For the utilization of polymeric materials in high-demanding applications like solar thermal systems it is of utmost importance to define the performance requirements and to investigate the applicability of components for defined systems under service relevant conditions. This paper deals with the lifetime estimation of black-pigmented polypropylene (PP) absorber grades for overheating protected solar thermal collector systems for hot water preparation in five representative climate zones. Based on experimental aging data in hot air and heat carrier fluid at elevated temperatures (95 °C, 115 °C and 135 °C) and climatic input data, as well as deduced loading conditions and absorber temperature distributions, the lifetime was calculated using a theoretical and an empirical extrapolation approach and assuming cumulating damages in service relevant temperature intervals. Depending on the PP grade, the extrapolation method and the location, endurance limits ranging from 8 to 50 years were obtained. The PP grade with ß-spherulithic structures and less carbon black exhibited a superior performance (factor 2) compared to a well-established grade which is currently widely used for swimming pool absorbers.
A Fundamental Look At Supply Side Energy Reserves For The Planet
November 2015 - PDF 0.15MB
By: Richard Perez, Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, University at Albany, Statue University of New York and Marc Perez, MGH-Energy
Publisher: IEA SHC
This is an update of the April 2009 Solar Update article. The objective of the 2009 article was to put in perspective the potential of often-cited nuclear and renewable alternatives to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emitting fossil energy sources. Its main conclusion was that although a mix of alternatives, including hydropower, biomass/biofuels, geothermal, ocean thermal energy conversion, waves, tides, wind and solar, appeared like a sound approach to bringing about the desired economically and environmentally sustainable energy future (akin to putting future energy eggs in different baskets), a review of their potential clearly showed that the solar resource dwarfed all other renewables (and fossil/nuclear alike) by orders of magnitude. And therefore, the desired economically and environmentally sustainable energy mix of the future should be essentially solar-based.
Country Highlight: Spain - A Sunny Paradise Truncated by a Financial Crisis: The Building Code Experience
November 2015 - PDF 0.24MB
By: Ricardo Enríquez Miranda, Ph.D., CIEMAT
Publisher: IEA SHC
In the recent past decades, Spain has pioneered two solar revolutions: mandatory inclusion of solar thermal in new and refurbished buildings and solar thermal electricity. The 2008 financial crisis deeply impact the industry and the future recovery and development will depend strongly on these and other adopted policies.
Solar Thermal = Savings of Over 118 Million Tons of CO2 Annually
Solar Heat Worldwide
November 2015 - PDF 0.15MB
Publisher: IEA SHC
The IEA SHC Programme’s Solar Heat Worldwide is the most comprehensive publication on the global solar heating and cooling market. This year’s report includes data from 60 countries, or 95% of the solar thermal market and can be downloaded for free.
Task 46: Best Practices: Solar Irradiance Measurements with Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers (Summary from SHC Newsletter)
November 2015 - PDF 0.16MB
By: S. Wilbert, N. Geuder, M. Schwandt, B. Kraas, W. Jessen, R. Meyer, B. Nouri
Publisher: IEA SHC
Large-scale solar thermal projects, such as those producing industrial process heat for mining areas in Chile or district heating in Denmark, require diligent solar resource assessments. Unfortunately, high accuracy irradiance data are scarcely available in many regions, which are attractive for solar energy applications. This holds especially true for solar thermal technologies using concentrating collectors to produce high temperatures. For these systems, the focus of the resource assessment lies on direct normal, or beam irradiance (DNI). Satellite data can only be used in combination with ground data to estimate inter-annual variability and longterm mean values. Hence, new ground measurements have to be collected for projects using concentrating collectors, such as high temperature process heat or district heating systems.

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Task 53: Solar Cooling 2.0 A New Generation Is Growing Up
November 2015 - PDF 0.17MB
By: Riccardo Battisti, Ambiente Italia
Publisher: IEA SHC
The September workshop on New Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems focused on the status of solar cooling technology research and market developments. About 40 professionals gathered in Rome for this half day event, which was organized by IEA SHC Task 53: New Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems and the German Eastbavarian Institute for Technology Transfer, OTTI e.V. the day before OTTI’s 6th International Conference on Solar Air-Conditioning. Participants learned first hand about the first outcomes of SHC Task 53 that began its collaborative work in March 2014 and includes the participation of ten countries from across the globe.
Task 54: Price Reduction of Solar Thermal Systems
November 2015 - PDF 0.11MB
By: Michael Köhl, ISE Fraunhofer
Publisher: IEA SHC
Driving down the costs of solar thermal systems is not just about cheaper collector production. In fact, post-production processes, such as sales, installation and maintenance account for up to 50% of the price that end consumers pay. This new IEA SHC Task, Price Reduction of Solar Thermal Systems, will investigate these other factors and find ways to reduce systems costs. The Task’s kick-off meeting was hosted by Fraunhofer ISE in Freiburg, Germany the end of October. Researchers and industry representatives from all over the world participated.
Case Study: Twin wall sheet testing
IEA-SHC Task 39 INFO Sheet C7.4
May 2015 - PDF 0.38MB
By: Andreas Piekarczyk, Alyin Durson
When using polymeric materials for solar thermal flat plate collectors, one distinct difference in physical properties compels us to reinvent the absorber design. Due to the low thermal conductivity of polymeric materials, the absorber, in order to prevent local overheating and to increase the collectors’ efficiency, needs water contact throughout the whole surface. In general only few absorber designs fulfill this requirement, e.g. thin plastic film absorbers, tube absorbers or twin wall sheets. The latter two are in the focus of recent development due to mechanical stability and economic efficiency. In order to investigate changes in the mechanical properties of the used materials as closely to the product as possible suitable mechanical testing methods need to be applied. For pipes, methods to test different mechanical loads already exist, but for twin wall sheets none of these can be applied.
Country Highlight: Netherlands High Energy in a Low Country
May 2015 - PDF 0.16MB
By: Lex Bosselaar
Within the next 20 years the supply of fossil fuels, mainly oil and gas, will not be sufficient to provide for the world’s economies. Anticipating this shortage, the Dutch government policy focuses on a completely sustainable energy supply system by 2050. Renewable heat and heat storage will be key issues to achieve this goal.
Task 40: What Market Adoption of NetZEBs Need
May 2015 - PDF 0.08MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
To mainstream market adoption of NetZEBs, what is needed is a wide consensus on clear definitions and agreement on the measures of building performance that could inform “zero energy” building policies, programs and industry building practices, as well as design tools, case studies and demonstrations that would support industry adoption.
Task 49: Guidelines Developed for Process Heat Integration
May 2015 - PDF 0.42MB
Editor: Pamela Murphy
Solar planners, energy consultants and process engineers now have access to a general procedure to identify and rank suitable integration points and solar thermal system concepts when integrating solar heat into industrial processes. The guidelines were developed within SHC Task 49: Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes.
Task 50: Bypassing Barriers to Lighting Retrofit: Is Solid State Lighting Already Changing the Game?
May 2015 - PDF 0.24MB
By: Marc Fontoynont
In comparison with a lighting solution using fluorescent sources, Solid State Lighting (LED) comes with different technical, operational (maintenance) and economical parameters. Work within IEA SHC Task 50: Advanced Lighting Solutions for Retrofitting Buildings studied the impact of these fast changing parameters on lighting retrofits – intending to give sound advice to decision makers.
Task47: Non-Residential Building Renovation – The Potential, Opportunities and Barriers
May 2015 - PDF 0.85MB
By: Fritjof Salvesen
A 50 - 90% reduction in heat consumption and a 50 - 70% reduction in overall energy demand are possible when renovating a building. Twenty exemplary renovation projects highlighted in SHC Task 47: Solar Renovation of Nonresidential demonstrate how this can be achieved. Two buildings of these buildings achieved the plus-energy standard and one of them received the highest possible BREEAM score of “Outstanding.” And, all these buildings used commercially available products and systems.
Turkey: Solar Era Is Just Beginning
May 2015 - PDF 0.55MB
By: Dr. Bulent Yesilata
In parallel with its population and GDP growth, Turkey has been experiencing rapid demand growth in all segments of the energy sector for decades. Turkey is developing an integrated energy policy aimed at securing a reliable supply of energy, as well as achieving a low-carbon and environmentally sustainable future. Turkey also intends to promote employment and economic growth through its energy development. Solar energy plays a major role in Turkey’s renewable energy roadmap due to the fact that is geographically located the “solar band” region.
Development of an energy evaluation methodology to make multiplepredictions of the HVAC&R system energy demand for office buildings
May 2014 - PDF 4.88MB
By: Jinkyun Choa, Seungho Shina, Jonghurn Kimb, Hiki Hong
HVAC&R systems are the most energy consuming building services, representing approximately half of the final energy use in the building sector. Despite their significant energy use, there is a lack of a consistent and homogeneous framework to efficiently guide research, mainly due to the complexity and variety of HVAC&R systems, but also to insufficient rigor in their energy analysis. Quantifying the energy consumption characteristics of HVAC&R system is complicated, because the energy savings provided by this system depend on various factors. This research evaluates energy consumption characteristics of HVAC&R systems, with the aim of establishing a common idea for the analysis of building energy efficiency. The objective of this study is to develop an energy evaluation methodology and a simple simulation program that may be used by engineers and designers to assess the effectiveness and economic benefits of HVAC&R systems. Our approach deals with the concept of HVAC&R system energy use aggregation levels that are composed of subsystems. To carry out a techno-economical estimation of HVAC&R systems considering different types of subsystems, the matrix combination analyzed, and a total of 960 HVAC&R systems can be implemented for a large-scale office building. The methodology of energy analysis that was carried out in this study highlights how to plan and design toward utilizing the most effective HVAC&R systems.
Simulation of a solar collector array consisting of two types of solar collectors, with and without convection barrier
2014 - PDF 0.54MB
By: Federico Bava*, Simon Furbo, Bengt Perers
Publisher: Energy Procedia, Elsevier
The installed area of solar collectors in solar heating fields is rapidly increasing in Denmark. In this scenario even relatively small performance improvements may lead to a large increase in the overall energy production. Both collectors with and without polymer foil, functioning as convection barrier, can be found on the Danish market. Depending on the temperature level at which the two types of collectors operate, one can perform better than the other. This project aimed to study the behavior of a 14 solar collector row made of these two different kinds of collectors, in order to optimize the composition of the row. Actual solar collectors available on the Danish market (models HT-SA and HT-A 35-10 manufactured by ARCON Solar A/S) were used for this analysis. To perform the study, a simulation model in TRNSYS was developed based on the Danish solar collector field in Braedstrup. A parametric analysis was carried out by modifying the composition of the row, in order to find both the energy and economy optimum.
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review by the scientific conference committee of SHC 2014 under responsibility of PSE AG.
Fulfillment of net-zero energy building (NZEB) with four metrics in a single family house with different heating alternatives
September 2013 - PDF 2.13MB
By: Ayman Mohamed, Ala Hasan, Kai Sirén
This study aims to investigate the fulfillment of four Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) balances, NZEB-PE, NZEB-site, NZEB-emission and NZEB-cost, considering the four metrics of primary energy (PE), site energy, CO2-eqemissions and energy cost, respectively, using weighting factors based on Finnish and international reference data. The study analyzes five conventional energy systems and seven biomassbased standalone and shared combined heat and power (CHP) systems. These systems are connected to a single family house located in Helsinki, Finland, with two energy efficiency levels: a standard house and a passive house, simulated by Trnsys software. The annual balance of the import and export of the operational thermal and electrical energies is applied. The simulated results indicate that the NZEB-emission, NZEB-PE, NZEB-cost, and NZEB-site are arranged in that order according to the ease of fulfilling the annual balance. Making the house high in thermal energy efficiency (or adding solar thermal collectors) for all the studied systems is a step towards achieving NZEB-PE, NZEB-cost, and NZEB-site. On the contrary, achieving the NZEB-emission by the shared CHPs connected to the standard house is easier than the passive house. The NZEB balance is more attainable by the shared CHPs than the standalone CHPs.
The NZEB-PE is easier to achieve using the international factors than using the Finnish PE factors.
Solar Steam Cooking Made Possible in the Treacherous regions on Ladakh
January 2013
By: Thermax Solar
Publisher: EQ International April 2013 Issue, Page 57
Solar Thermal Marking New Frontiers
January 2013
By: Thermax Solar
Publisher: EQ International March 2013 Issue, Page 61
Nearly-zero, Net zero and Plus Energy Buildings – How definitions & regulations affect the solutions
December 2012 - PDF 0.39MB
By: Karsten Voss, Igor Sartori, Roberto Lollini
The topic of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEBs) has received increasing attention in recent years, up to inclusion in strategic energy policy papers in several countries. However, despite the emphasis placed on the goals, the various ZEB definitions applied mostly remain generic and are not yet standardised.
Photovoltaics and Zero Energy Buildings: A New Opportunity and Challenge for Design
October 2012 - PDF 1.21MB
By: Alessandra Scognamiglio and Harald N. Røstvik
Starting from the end of 2020, all new buildings will have to be Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (Nearly ZEBs—ED 2010/31/EU recast). This new ‘energy paradigm’ might be a revolution for architecture and for Photovoltaics (PV) too, but there are both cultural and technical obstacles to overcome. There is a need to re-think the way buildings are designed (integrating renewables for being ZE). There is a need to re-think the way PV is designed in buildings. PV will be gaining an increasing relevance in the ZEBs design, thanks to its features and potentialities (suitability for any kind of energy demand of the building, easiness of building integration, cost). In a ZEB scenario, PV is very suitable for generating energy, ‘on site’ and ‘at site’; this enlarges the perspective of use of PV from the architectural scale to a wider scale, including the space close to the building or even to the urban and landscape scale. In such a new context, the existing research on the relationships between PV and architecture, focusing mainly on the way the PV components are used in relation to the envelope (Building-integrated PV/Building-added (Attached) PV), is no longer sufficient. The authors envision possible formal results, opportunities and challenges, for the use of PV in ZEBs, as well as new research issues for the future relationships between PV and ZEBs from the architecture and landscape design point of view. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Net zero energy buildings: A consistent definition framework
February 2012 - PDF 0.68MB
By: Igor Sartori, Assunta Napolitano, Karsten Voss
The term Net ZEB, Net Zero Energy Building, indicates a building connected to the energy grids. It is recognized that the sole satisfaction of an annual balance is not sufficient to fully characterize Net ZEBs and the interaction between buildings and energy grids need to be addressed. It is also recognized that different definitions are possible, in accordance with a country’s political targets and specific conditions. This paper presents a consistent framework for setting Net ZEB definitions. Evaluation of the criteria in the definition framework and selection of the related options becomes a methodology to set Net ZEB definitions in a systematic way. The balance concept is central in the definition framework and two major types of balance are identified, namely the import/export balance and the load/generation balance. As compromise between the two a simplified monthly net balance is also described. Concerning the temporal energy match, two major characteristics are described to reflect a Net ZEB’s ability to match its own load by on-site generation and to work beneficially with respect to the needs of the local grids. Possible indicators are presented and the concept of grid interaction flexibility is introduced as a desirable target in the building energy design.
Europe Asia Solar Cooling Gains Traction
January 2012
By: Bärbel Epp
Editor: Solarthermalworld
Publisher: Solarthermalworld
Large Japanese and Chinese companies have recently taken a greater interest in solar cooling. The photo shows an installation by Chinese company Jiangsu Huineng New Energy Technology (Huin), which started supplying solar cooling systems this year. New system kits help drive down costs, although investments in sorption chillers are still higher than for compression chillers. After the Intersolar Europe conference in Munich, Germany, and its dedicated solar cooling session, Uli Jakob, Vice President of the German sorption chiller association Green Chiller, noted: “Solar cooling was one of the highlights of the conference.”
Keeping Cool with the Sun
Latest Developments on Solar Cooling and Task 48 Short Presentation
January 2012 - PDF 1.36MB
By: Daniel Mugnier (TECSOL) & Uli Jakob (SOLEM Consulting)
Publisher: International Sustainable Energy Review
Worldwide, the energy consumption required for cold and air conditioning is rising rapidly. Usual electrically driven compressor chillers (split units) have maximum energy consumption in peak-load periods during the summer. In the last few years in Southern Europe this has regularly led to grids working to maximum capacity and blackouts. In recent years, the sales figures of split units with a cooling capacity range of up to 5KW have risen rapidly.