Status of Solar Heating/Cooling and Solar Buildings - 2014

Status of the Market for Solar Thermal Systems

Market Size and Trends

The market for solar heating installations in Sweden grew rapidly until around 2006.  After that the overall market started to decline.

Table: Annual installations of solar heating systems in Sweden.
2010: 20 699 sqm / 14,5 MW
2011: 20 807 sqm / 14,6 MW
2012: 11 257 sqm /  7,9 MW
2013:  8 611 sqm /   6,0 MW

Larger systems have had a positive trend in recent years. This is, however, largely due to a budget shift in the former subsidy program.  An investment subsidy was in place from 2000 until 2011.

The sale of unglazed pool collectors shown in the diagram may include export.  This market was not included in the subsidy program.

 

 

Typical Applications and Products

Typical applications in Sweden are combined domestic hot water and space heating systems in single-family houses, multi-family houses, often in combination with solid wood boilers (i.e., wood chips, logs, pellets, and briquettes).  You can also find solar heating in small district heating systems, and combinations of solar collectors and heat pumps in, for example, single-family houses.

Main Market Drivers

Some solar energy systems may be initiated due to the national building regulation, which includes solar heat as an option to meet the requirements.  Key barriers are the low price for alternative energy supply and a lack of information on solar heating systems among actors and consumers.  A main competitor in the small systems segment are heat pumps, and for large systems district heating (including combined heat and power generation) based on, for example, solid wood fuels, municipal solid waste, and industrial waste heat.

Industry

In Sweden, there are a few solar collector manufacturing companies, which cover about 50% of the domestic collector market, and one single absorber manufacturer that exports.  Different approaches are used to market the systems, but mainly this is done via the installers.

Employment

Estimates from the Swedish Solar Energy Association suggest that there are 200 jobs (full time equivalent) currently in Sweden related to the solar thermal industry, including installation and related service (testing, etc.). The assumption is that 100 m2 of collectors installed will create 1 job.

Costs

The costs for small systems are in the range around 5,000 Euro (5 m2, 300 litre) and the large systems are in the range from 1,000 to 300 Euro/m2 (excl. VAT) depending on size.

Other Key Topics

A key topic for the industry is the absence of governmental subsidies for solar heating systems.  Another key issue is the competition with heat pumps and district heating.

Status of the Market for Solar Buildings

Scope

The focus in Sweden is on low-energy buildings and nearly zero-energy buildings. There is no separate focus on solar buildings, however, many of these buildings are equipped with solar heating systems.

Market Size and Trends

The market for new buildings has decreased somewhat over the last years. It can be expected that the market for construction will take a few years to recover.

Main Market Drivers

The main drivers for low energy buildings are local policies of cities and companies who want to reach ambitious energy and environmental targets.

Employment

There is no separate information on solar buildings.

Costs

There is no separate information on solar buildings.

Other Key Topics

None.

R&D Activities

R&D Programmes

No national R&D program is entirely and specifically devoted towards solar thermal energy.

There is, however, a broad research and innovation program within the energy and construction sector where solar heating projects can be funded. This program is called CERBOF, which is a Swedish acronym for "the Centre for Energy and Resource Efficiency in the Built Environment."  The Swedish Energy Agency runs the program in collaboration with various partners in the construction sector.

Furthermore, The Swedish Energy Agency also funds research and development projects in the solar thermal area, freestanding from different on-going R&D programs.

R&D Infrastructure

R&D Institutions
Institution Type of Institution Relevant Research Areas IEA SHC Involvement Website
Linnaeus University Natural Sciences Polymeric solar heating systems Task 39 www.lnu.se
Mälardalen University Energy Technology Solar collectors etc. Task 40 www.mdh.se
Uppsala University Solid State Physics Solar collectors etc. Task 40 www.uu.se
Lund university Energy and Building Design Building design, architecture Task 41 www.lth.se
Royal Institute of Technology Energy Technology PCM storage Task 42 www.kth.se
SP Swedish Technical Research Institute Energy Technology Testing and certification Task 43 www.sp.se
Dalarna University Solar Energy Research Center Combisystems Task 44 www.du.se
Chalmers (Uni Tech) Building Services Engineering Solar systems, small and large Preparation of a few tasks, e.g. Task 45 www.chalmers.se
Mälardalen University Energy Technology Solar collectors etc Task 53 www.mdh.se
Lund university Energy and Building Design Building design, archtecture Task 50, Task 51 www.lth.se

Actual Innovations

Some innovative hybrid collectors have been developed in Sweden.

Support Framework

Background

Energy goals/targets for Sweden are stated in the Government’s integrated climate and energy policy bills from 2009.The goals include energy policy targets by 2020, including a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, at least 50% use of renewable energy, and a 20% more efficient energy end use. Also, the use of fossil fuels for space and tap water heating is to be phased out by 2020.

There are no specific and quantitative energy policy targets directly related to solar heating (nor for solar PV).

At the same time, there are various policies (national, local and commercial) and measures that can influence the development and implementation of solar thermal systems.

Government Agencies Responsible for Solar Thermal, for Solar Building Activities

The main agency is the Swedish Energy Agency, www.energimyndigheten.se/en/.

Most Important Public Support Measure(s) for Solar Thermal and for Solar Buildings

There are no direct support measures for solar heating, but there are several indirect measures like taxes on fossil fuels and energy efficiency requirements for new buildings.

For solar buildings, the main incentive can still be considered to be local energy and climate policies.

A generally applicable tax deduction is possible for all refurbishments, rebuilding, and add-on building, including solar thermal systems. This subsidy can give up to a 50% reduction in labour costs for installation and connection of solar panels and associated equipment. Labor costs are generally 30% of the total investment cost, including VAT. The tax reduction is then half of this amount.

Information Resources

National Solar Associations (industry and non-industry)

The Swedish solar industry is organised through Solar Energy Association of Sweden, SEAS,( Svensk Solenergi, SSE) –  www.svensksolenergi.se

National Associations on Green/Solar/Sustainable Buildings

There are several Swedish organisations for green and sustainable buildings, for exmaple, “Sweden Green Building Council”, www.sgbc.se

Most Important Media for Solar Thermal and Solar Buildings

“Energimagasinet” is a monthly magazine that covers economics and technology relating to production, distribution and use of electricity, heat and steam nationally and internationally. The magazine is aimed primarily at decision-makers and other energy experts in the energy business, industry, municipalities, government agencies and universities. Their main target group includes professionals in the energy business, energy-intensive industries, energy advisors, consultants, etc. The Solar Energy Association of Sweden (SEAS) has a co-operation with the journal. www.energimagasinet.com.

"Energi & Miljö" is a monthly magazine that informs on the development of heating, ventilation, indoor climate, plumbing, refrigeration and energy technology. Readers consists of industrial executives, consulting engineers, building services contractors, wholesalers, builders, real estate administrators and employees at official institutions and companies, governmental and municipal authorities (www.energi-miljo.se)

"Ny Teknik" is Sweden’s largest technology and IT newspaper and publishes technolgy news, product trends and innovations. The newspaper reports every week on growing sectors such as IT, telecom, energy, biotechnology and how new technology is being used within industry (www.nyteknik.se).

"Byggindustrin" ("The Construction Industry") is the industry's leading news magazine and is published every week. The newspaper includes reports and articles on technology, housing, building materials, finance, and architecture (www.byggindustrin.com)

"Energivärlden" is the Swedish Energy Agency's magazine and is published five times a year. It is aimed at anyone interested in energy issues.
www.energimyndigheten.se/Press/Tidningen-Energivarlden